Robert Straley was 13 when he entered the Florida School for Boys in the early 1960s for running away from home. The 1,400-acre grounds in the city of Marianna looked like heaven compared to his troubled home, he said, but on his first day, he was beaten bloody 35 times with a three-foot leather whip with a sheet metal insert.
"These were not spankings -- they were floggings," said Straley, 66 and now living in Clearwater, Fla.
"It looked like a college campus, not a reform school," he said. "There were no fences, the cottages were surrounded by trimmed hedges and tall pines and oaks. There was a swimming pool and a chapel. It looked nice, but it was a beautiful hell."
Straley was one of about 300 "white house boys," so named because they survived routine beatings in a white concrete block building that he called a "torture chamber."
"You went to the left for the white boys' waiting room and right for the black boys' room," he recalled. "They turned on the big industrial fan, which made a large racket and muted the sounds of the screams and whips somewhat.
"The first boy came out with his eyes red from crying and his hands were buried in his crotch. He was pale and shaking with blood on his pants."
The school, later named the Arthur G. Dozier School for Boys, closed in 2011, but it left a legacy of segregation, forced labor and brutality that is only today being fully uncovered.
Earlier this month, the Florida legislature approved the exhumation of 34 bodies known to be buried at the Dozier's Boot Hill Cemetery.
Digging began Labor Day weekend and excavators unearthed the remains of two boys -- ages 10 and 13 -- and hope to find the remains of as many as 98 children who were reported missing in reform school records over its 111-year history.
Many families who lost children or others who witnessed beatings still have questions about who is buried at Dozier and how they died.
"We knew there were kids missing," said Straley. "I don't think every boy who came to the white house came out alive."
Now researchers at the University of South Florida hope to match DNA in the remains with families who want answers about their missing relatives.
The year-long project is headed up by USF anthropologist Erin Kimmerle, who has previously worked on genocide cases, identifying remains in mass graves in the Balkans, Nigeria and Peru.
"It's really about providing access to justice for families," said Kimmerle, 40, who applies science to civil rights.
"This isn't a war. It's different," she said. "But there are brothers and sisters who for their whole lives have been asking questions."
The USF investigation is funded by a $190,000 grant from the State of Florida and $423,000 from the U.S. Justice Department.
The school was established in 1900 as the Florida State Reform School in the heart of Ku Klux Klan country and was renamed several times.
At the start, children as young as 5 were sent there, at first for crimes of "theft and murder," but soon for lesser offenses, such as "incorrigibility, truancy or dependency," according to the 2012 interim report by the USF team. For some, the only crime was being an orphan.
Children were segregated by gender and race -- "white and colored," according to the report. At one time, the facility housed as many as 800 children.
But as early as 1901, reports circulated of children "being chained to walls in irons, brutal whippings and peonage [forced labor]" and the state was called in at least six times to investigate.
In 2008, an investigation by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement revealed 34 had been buried at Boot Hill Cemetery on school grounds in unmarked graves and 22 were unaccounted for. But they couldn't find enough evidence to support the allegations.
But USF did its own research of historical documents and found double the number of deaths, including boys aged 6 to 18 and two staff members. They worked for months to secure a permit to dig.
"The records were very incomplete, full of errors and stopped in 1960," said Kimmerle.