Lesbians get it from fathers, gay men from mothers
Scientists may have finally solved the puzzle of what makes a person gay, and how it is passed from parents to their children.
A group of scientists suggested Tuesday that homosexuals get that trait from their opposite-sex parents: A lesbian will almost always get the trait from her father, while a gay man will get the trait from his mother.
The hereditary link of homosexuality has long been established, but scientists knew it was not a strictly genetic link, because there are many pairs of identical twins who have differing sexualities. Scientists from the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis say homosexuality seems to have an epigenetic, not a genetic link.
Long thought to have some sort of hereditary link, a group of scientists suggested Tuesday that homosexuality is linked to epi-marks — extra layers of information that control how certain genes are expressed. These epi-marks are usually, but not always, "erased" between generations. In homosexuals, these epi-marks aren't erased — they're passed from father-to-daughter or mother-to-son, explains William Rice, an evolutionary biologist at the University of California Santa Barbara and lead author of the study.
"There is compelling evidence that epi-marks contribute to both the similarity and dissimilarity of family members, and can therefore feasibly contribute to the observed familial inheritance of homosexuality and its low concordance between [identical] twins," Rice notes.
Rice and his team created a mathematical model that explains why homosexuality is passed through epi-marks, not genetics. Evolutionarily speaking, if homosexuality was solely a genetic trait, scientists would expect the trait to eventually disappear because homosexuals wouldn't be expected to reproduce. But because these epi-marks provide an evolutionary advantage for the parents of homosexuals: They protect fathers of homosexuals from underexposure to testosterone and mothers of homosexuals from overexposure to testosterone while they are in gestation.
"These epi-marks protect fathers and mothers from excess or underexposure to testosterone — when they carry over to opposite-sex offspring, it can cause the masculinization of females or the feminization of males," Rice says, which can lead to a child becoming gay. Rice notes that these markers are "highly variable" and that only strong epi-marks will result in a homosexual offspring.
Though scientists have long suspected some sort of genetic link, Rice says studies attempting to explain why people are gay have been few and far between.
"Most mainstream biologists have shied away from studying it because of the social stigma," he says. "It's been swept under the rug, people are still stuck on this idea that it's unnatural. Well there are many examples of homosexuality in nature, it's very common." Homosexual behavior has been observed in black swans, penguins, sheep, and other animals, he says.
Rice's model still needs to be tested on real-life parent-offspring pairs, but he says this epigenetic link makes more sense than any other explanation, and that his team has mapped out a way for other scientists to test their work.
"We've found a story that looks really good," he says. "There's more verification needed, but we point out how we can easily do epigenetic profiles genome-wide. We predict where the epi-marks occur, we just need other studies to look at it empirically. This can be tested and proven within six months. It's easy to test. If it's a bad idea, we can throw it away in short order."
[quote]Lesbians get it from fathers, gay men from mothers
I think I saw that porno
OP, I *knew* my father hateraped me!!! I just wasn't sure if I was repressing the memory, because it wounds, or if it happened in-vitro. Thank you for providing clarification, and validation of my firm belief that the origin of all haterape is LITERALLY THE PENIS!!!
Study finds epigenetics, not genetics, underlies homosexuality
KNOXVILLE – Epigenetics – how gene expression is regulated by temporary switches, called epi-marks – appears to be a critical and overlooked factor contributing to the long-standing puzzle of why homosexuality occurs.
According to the study, published online today in The Quarterly Review of Biology, sex-specific epi-marks, which normally do not pass between generations and are thus "erased," can lead to homosexuality when they escape erasure and are transmitted from father to daughter or mother to son.
From an evolutionary standpoint, homosexuality is a trait that would not be expected to develop and persist in the face of Darwinian natural selection. Homosexuality is nevertheless common for men and women in most cultures. Previous studies have shown that homosexuality runs in families, leading most researchers to presume a genetic underpinning of sexual preference. However, no major gene for homosexuality has been found despite numerous studies searching for a genetic connection.
In the current study, researchers from the Working Group on Intragenomic Conflict at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis (NIMBioS) integrated evolutionary theory with recent advances in the molecular regulation of gene expression and androgen-dependent sexual development to produce a biological and mathematical model that delineates the role of epigenetics in homosexuality.
Epi-marks constitute an extra layer of information attached to our genes' backbones that regulates their expression. While genes hold the instructions, epi-marks direct how those instructions are carried out – when, where and how much a gene is expressed during development. Epi-marks are usually produced anew each generation, but recent evidence demonstrates that they sometimes carryover between generations and thus can contribute to similarity among relatives, resembling the effect of shared genes.
Sex-specific epi-marks produced in early fetal development protect each sex from the substantial natural variation in testosterone that occurs during later fetal development. Sex-specific epi-marks stop girl fetuses from being masculinized when they experience atypically high testosterone, and vice versa for boy fetuses. Different epi-marks protect different sex-specific traits from being masculinized or feminized – some affect the genitals, others sexual identity, and yet others affect sexual partner preference. However, when these epi-marks are transmitted across generations from fathers to daughters or mothers to sons, they may cause reversed effects, such as the feminization of some traits in sons, such as sexual preference, and similarly a partial masculinization of daughters.
The study solves the evolutionary riddle of homosexuality, finding that "sexually antagonistic" epi-marks, which normally protect parents from natural variation in sex hormone levels during fetal development, sometimes carryover across generations and cause homosexuality in opposite-sex offspring. The mathematical modeling demonstrates that genes coding for these epi-marks can easily spread in the population because they always increase the fitness of the parent but only rarely escape erasure and reduce fitness in offspring.
"Transmission of sexually antagonistic epi-marks between generations is the most plausible evolutionary mechanism of the phenomenon of human homosexuality," said the study's co-author Sergey Gavrilets, NIMBioS' associate director for scientific activities and a professor at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville.
I could have told you years ago that my mother made me gay.
Cripes. It's like a cold. Or a disease when I hear "get it."
This isn't science. Math, snowflakes, is deductive logic and is not any kind of scientific study. William Rice is turning cartwheels trying to explain something which you can see in other species in nature: that homosexuality contributes to species survival. In some species, we read today on datalounge, females find gay behavior among males good indicators of virility and health. In other species, not all males reproduce but they have social roles in protecting the hive or raising the young. We can certainly imagine the case where homosexuality serves to cement human cooperation rather than competition on the hunt.
In other words, Rice is assuming a genetic bias against homosexuality when there is no good reason to believe in it; and this is causing him to invent ever more complex and ridiculous scenarios.
In short, the problem with biologist William Rice is that he doesn't have a high school level understanding of evolution.
Bingo. Of course this sort of crap "science" gets lots of media attention because breeders are dying to know what "causes" homosexuality. Given that the world is being destroyed by rampant heterosexuality, that's what we should be trying to find the cause of.
so being gay is like being a member of the opposite sex?
[quote]Most mainstream biologists have shied away from studying it because of the social stigma
Since when are scientists concerned with social stigma??
[quote]Of course this sort of crap "science" gets lots of media attention because breeders are dying to know what "causes" homosexuality.
Oh please--even after it's proven that homosexuality isn't a choice, ignorant breeders will still bury their mentally deficient heads in the sand and continue believing it is. Just look at how many people are still denying that climate change exists despite all the science proving it does!
I have another take on that outcome. He says its not in our actual genes, so if you just stop there, as a hater, gays are a mistake.
But, what he says causes it is an extra layer of information on the gene. What the article dose not go into is that extra information is a new field of study called epigenetic theory.
Basically, from what I get, its what tells the genes to grow hair instead of feathers, blue eyes instead of brown etc. It's like the conductor of the symphony of genes.
My take on that, (which I am sticking with) is that being gay is so important to ALL species that natures didn't want it to disappear over time like other traits. It moved it up a notch to the conductor because someone has to be able to create good music once and a while.
So mothers need to disown themselves over their gay sons. Seriously--what other "born" affliction does a mother disown her child over? None.
bump for the scientists
Terms like "feminized" and "masculinized" are red flags. You can document physical and behavioral changes without resorting to such loaded concepts. Same-sexaulity is extremely common among men, for example, even (maybe especially) where it's supposedly forbidden.
Does that make Arab and Latin men "feminized"? I've spent a lot of time in South America, and I didn't see any evidence of it. Visitors to the Arab world don't seem to either.
If anything, I see men as being masculinized by homosexuality, as in having greater opportunity to behave sexually like men: more promiscuous, freer to separate sex and love, and freer from the constraits of "fidelity".
And how about me? I'm tall, hairy, muscular, well hung and have a lot of sex, much of it with partners I don't exactly know well. And it isn't because I'm pretty. How is that "feminized"? Since making it with other guys is common male trait, it's hardly feminine.
Whatever the fuck "feminine" is supposed to mean.
Essentialism sucks donkey balls.
I hate these sorts of studies -- it gives them assumed knowledge with always starts them dicking with people...
R7= perpetual victim
Why would any gay person find this offensive? What? You won't be happy unless its MAGIC that causes homosexuality?
I love r20.
It's the grandmothers. They cause homosexuality. And sometimes the badgers. But it can be cured. Just run for Senate in a Midwestern state (as a freeper), win, and then wait in men's room stall in a major hub.
It is a spell from the play MacBeth, and it absolutely works. A stage manager I slept with told me about it.
So gays are merely regular men but with super femme-y genes?
I knew it! I've been saying this for years.
Now that we know what causes it, we can prevent it!
Is this model a hypothesis? Or does it have anything to support it?
"if homosexuality was solely a genetic trait, scientists would expect the trait to eventually disappear because homosexuals wouldn't be expected to reproduce."